There are many methods to test for HIV, and one of the most popular, if not the most popular, of these is the ELISA Test. ELISA is short for Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. It is an HIV testing technique that finds for the existence of antigens or antibodies in a patient’s human body.
The Five Kinds of ELISA Test
ELISA test is split up into five kinds, in accordance with five various enzymes utilized in the testing method. They are the:
- Competitive ELISA
- Direct ELISA
- Indirect ELISA
- Multiplex ELISA
- Sandwich ELISA
All of the methods are performed the similar way, and HIV patients can go through one or more of those, subject to what his or her doctor recommends.
Guidelines on ELISA Testing
ELISA test is an HIV test that is common around the globe. When a blood sample of the affected person has been taken, the test is conducted in a pathology laboratory with the use of a number of laboratory equipment and apparatus. Allow me to share how it is carried out one step at a time.
- To begin with, a patient’s blood sample is stored with the intention that serum from the blood can be obtained.
- Next, an ELISA plate is set up with pure, non-active antigens.
- Third, the serum from the patient’s blood sample is then put on the ELISA plate with the pure, non-active antigens.
- Next, any person who is positive with HIV must have HIV antibodies in his or her serum. Therefore when the serum is put on the ELISA antigen plate, the HIV antibodies ought to join with the antigens.
- Fifth, the plate is then cleansed with the use of a particular solution that gets rid of unwanted contaminants around the antigen-antibody thing.
- Lastly, the leftover antigen-antibody matter is dealt with an enzyme that will result in a color transformation if an individual is positive for HIV.
Accuracy and Reliability of the ELISA Test
ELISA tests have established that they are dependable when it comes to knowing whether or not a man or woman has HIV. They are often used by many health professionals worldwide, and so take comfort in the fact that their precision is quite high.
The thing that doctors generally do is to perform some more tests as soon as a person is tested positive for HIV. They will perform one more ELISA test or go for another HIV testing method like the Western Blot test. In case the Western Blot test also delivers back a positive result, then that man or woman truly has HIV.