No doubt, HIV patients always need to tailor their minds, body, and total psychology towards positive thinking to help them go about their normal life and course of activities. The management and treatment of HIV are known to vary from stage to stage considering that a person who recently contracted the disease cannot go through the same process as someone who has full-blown AIDS.
This then necessitates various guidelines, even though linked, for relative purposes, to help achieve the sole goal of good health while infected with the disease. Good health in this context refers to preventing the immune system from further deteriorating to a point that other infections would take advantage of the whole system.
Below are some of the most vital HIV guidelines currently advised and used in operation worldwide.
The primary care interventions guidelines
These guidelines were issued by The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) in November 2013 to help patients with the management of HIV infection. It is necessary to understand that as a result of this development, patients with the HIV infection can now boast of living a healthy life and even survive longer than expected.
IDSA guidelines basically got updated because of the recorded progress being made which stated expressly, the role of primary care interventions in tailoring HIV guidelines.
One of the roles is that patients who are infected with the virus should pass through some blood monitoring under a standard primary healthcare provider in order to check the patient’s viral level. These checks are expected to be done at least once or twice in a year. Added to this, the patients ought to also undergo some screening for various medical conditions like cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes to know their health status at specified periods.
This should also be accompanied by vaccination against other conditions like influenza, Hepatitis A, and B, etc. In the circumstance where the patient is a woman, other forms of screening like that of Trichomoniasis should also be done as well as tests for Chlamydia and gonorrhea.
The use of HIV drug resistance
This guide is widespread of which many parts of the world have keyed into for its benefits. The essence of this guide as it applies to patients is to reduce the number of new HIV cases, managing the situation with HIV drug resistance (HIVDR). Other parts of the world like Sub-Saharan Africa where the health system is said to be weak are advised to tag along and utilize these drugs since they can barely access viral load testing in such regions.
Adherence to Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (TMTCT)
It is sad to have a newborn baby that is HIV positive; this has necessitated efforts of medical scientists to remedy or manage the situation. Fortunately, a baby can be protected from the virus with the use of the PMTCT mechanism.
As at 1994, it was shown by research that the vertical transmission of HIV to a baby by an infected mother reduced drastically from 25 to 8 percent with the use of Zidovudine, an ingested medication. Since that period, medication of HIV in pregnant women to reduce the risk of infecting a baby has cut the occurrence by about 95 percent.
The use of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)
This is also another guide but specifically used by HIV-negative persons to shield against a possible contraction of the disease. Results from the use of this medication show that if the PrEP is strictly adhered to as prescribed, the chances of contracting HIV is nearly zero.
This mechanism is not only taken for HIV but other forms of sexually transmitted diseases and people who have the tendency to get infected (health workers) due to the nature of their jobs and other such activities.
According to the World Health Organization in 2015, PrEP was released as a new guideline for HIV-prone persons like those with HIV-positive partners who do not want the option of sex with a condom.
The use of Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)
This guideline is the one which would come in handy and advised to be used after a short-term possible exposure to HIV. This guideline has been practiced since 1998 by healthcare workers because they have a high tendency of being infected with the virus.
Persons who may fall victim to sexual assault or rape by a stranger and those who have mistakenly shared sharp objects are advised to use it also. Its effectiveness, which is up to 81 percent, have been upheld as sufficient enough to save a person that is faced with the circumstance.
One may not appreciate the relevance of these various guidelines except one has been faced with the challenge of the HIV infection, but for many, the numerous aids that medical sciences have rendered cannot be over-emphasized.
People are expected to imbibe other self-guidelines like being faithful to one’s partner, using latex condoms during sexual intercourse, going for regular HIV tests and practice the sole use of sharp objects (like hair clippers, razor blades, and needles).
All of the above would shield one greatly from the virus if they can be adhered to.