Complaints about new infections and diseases are being made at medical facilities on a daily basis and in most cases; such complaints have been made by one or two that are related to the patient in one way or the other.
People often get infected due to proximity and the unavoidability of contacts with other humans as they go about their daily routine. The challenge then becomes how to shield one against these deadly diseases since humans cannot thrive in isolation.
Even though not all diseases are transmittable, surprisingly one could still be infected with a disease from an animal when some peculiar contacts are made.
The class of diseases that are transmitted from one person to another is known as infectious disease and this happens either through a direct or indirect contact. This is made possible by the presence of some disease transmission agents like viruses and parasites which are present in our daily lives.
The various activities that occasion disease transmission
- The spray of droplets. During sneezing or coughing, droplets are released from the mouth and nostrils and one could become infected with the attendant infectious disease in the tiny fluids. In most circumstances, people tend to keep a distance once they see a person trying to sneeze or cough but the disease could also be passed by merely speaking to someone very close. Proximity is, therefore, a huge factor to consider when a person becomes infected via coughing or sneezing.
- Contact with another person. Having physical contact with another person is one of the most common ways to transmit diseases because such activities are inevitable in our day-to-day lives. Disease transmission thereby occurs when bodily fluids are exchanged. One of the most common examples of this is sexually transmitted diseases given the inevitable genital contacts that occur. Another direct contact that could occasion disease transmission is the relationship between a pregnant woman and her unborn child during pregnancy and at birth. Infections like gonorrhea and Chlamydia are said to be transmittable from mother to child during birth if the pregnant woman neglected cure or treatment during the pregnancy period.
- Contact with contaminated objects. Certain organisms can live on some objects for a while which explains the reason for stern warning against the communal use of sharp objects. Objects like toothbrushes, needles, razors, and many other such personal items in the same class can, therefore, be a medium through which disease is transmitted.
- Contacts with animals. What comes to mind, first of all, is bird-flu when an animal-to-man disease is mentioned. The flu forms another class of transmittable disease among those that could occur as a result of bite or inhaling of animal waste, as the case may be. The use of gloves is advised when there is a necessity to handle animals.
- Insect bites. Insects that suck blood are responsible for many zoonotic infections, chief among them being ticks and mosquitoes. Such insects become infected when they have contacts with the blood of an infected animal or human and when contact is made with a new person, transmission occurs. A classic and known example of this is malaria and Lyme diseases that people often get infected with throughout many parts of the world.
- Oral contact with contaminated materials. Water and other feeds could be contaminated alongside many environmental objects. In most cases, people become sick as a result of feces contamination in the water and food they ingest which they have no prior clue about. Also, animals may become infected as a result of what they lick and the source through which they feed on because of the contaminated objects they are exposed to.
The common diseases that can be transmitted
Not all kinds of medical conditions can move from animal or person to person but some possess the features of transmission even though they vary and operate at different levels.
The common transmittable diseases are:
- Hepatitis A
- Hepatitis B
- Enterovirus D68
- West Nile Virus
- Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Syphilis, and many other sexually transmitted diseases
Prevention of Disease Transmission
All hope is not lost on whether one can shield against being infected with a disease or not. Adoption of simple habits and simple change of lifestyle could go a long way in protecting one from disease transmission. They include:
- The use of hand sanitizers before handling anything that would go into the mouth.
- Fewer contacts with the nose and mouth or immediate washing after doing so.
- Distance from sick people suffering from transmittable diseases, especially in places where the rates of particular transmittable diseases are said to be on the high.
- The use of gloves when handling a sick person, especially as a medical practitioner.
- The covering of nose and mouth when sneezing or coughing to protect others from being infected.
Many have suffered from various transmittable diseases because of simple preventive measures that were not properly observed. One could go through life without being infected with any disease if the above preventive measures are adhered to and proper healthcare methods, like vaccination, are engaged in from time to time.